Posted in Electronic records, Microsoft Teams, Records management, Retention and disposal, Training and education

What happens when you delete or edit sent Teams chats and posts

Teams chats and channel posts are a bit of a problem to manage as records because it is not easy to capture them – either individually or as a thread. The most common solution is to screenshot them but this is hardly ideal.

End-users may be able to delete or edit sent chats and posts. What happens to these? How can you know if a sent message was deleted or edited? Can you see the version history for edited messages?

This post explains.

Settings that allow deleting and editing

The Messaging policies section of the Teams admin center ( contains the global settings that allow end-users to delete and edit sent chats and channel posts.

In addition to the global settings, Team Owners may also modify the same settings for a Team only if the above options are enabled:

Editing sent chat messages

Here is an example of a sent chat message. We can see from the little ‘eye’ icon on the right of the sent message that the recipient has seen it.

The image below is the same message that has now been edited. The time stamp doesn’t change and no version history is available to the sender or recipient (but see below). The person who received it may not necessarily notice that the text was edited (who goes back to read messages?).

Editing sent channel posts

The following is an example channel post. Only the author of a channel post can edit it.

If the message is edited, this is indicated as shown but the time stamp stays the same. Again, no version history.

How to see the version history for chats and posts

A ‘compliance copy’ of all Teams chats and channel posts is stored in Exchange Online mailboxes until they are deleted. If there is no retention policy set for these chats and posts, deleted messages are (permanently) deleted relatively quickly. If there is a retention policy, they remain in the mailbox until the end of the retention period and are then subject to whatever action is set on the policy (e.g., destroy, do nothing).

The only way to check the previous versions of a chat or post is to create a Content Search case in the Compliance admin center. However, access to Content Search is restricted because it allows the person with access to search across all emails, Teams chats and posts, OneDrive and SharePoint.

Consequently, content searches for Teams chats/posts are likely to be only carried out for specific reasons – for example, threatening or harassing messages that were then edited.

The image below shows the results of a content search for myself as the author. The search returned two results for the edited channel post – one for the original and one for the edited message. Every time the message is edited, another copy will be retained. Note that the visible timestamp hasn’t changed.

When the messages are exported (as a .eml file), the only difference between the two is the ‘CorrelationVector‘, ‘a format and protocol standard for tracing and correlation of events through a distributed system based on a light weight vector clock’.

  • Original message correlation vector: “phE37FG2rU289DE7MmZndA.”}
  • Edited message correlation vector: “kZOVelgz1UWNU5DIxmO+NQ.”}

Everything else (apart from the edited text) is identical.

What happens when messages are deleted?

Microsoft’s guidance on Teams messaging policies dated 25 November 2021 appears to show no difference between deleting chat and deleting sent messages.

If deleting is allowed, what happens to these deleted chats or messages depends on whether a retention policy has been applied. Either way, if the chat or post has been deleted, it will be indicated as follows:

Deleted chat
Deleted channel post

When a chat or message is deleted:

  • If there is no retention policy, the messages are completely deleted within a day or a few days and cannot be found after that via a content search.
  • If a retention policy has been applied to chats and posts and it hasn’t expired, the messages can be found via a content search.
  • If a retention policy that applied to these messages has expired, then the messages will be deleted within a few days unless the disposal action is ‘do nothing’ or ‘keep forever’.

Implications for records

Organisations need to decide if Teams chats/posts may be records and, if they are, how they are to be captured especially given that a ‘compliance’ copy is stored in Exchange mailboxes until they are deleted.

At least four approaches are possible:

  • Allow end-users to delete Teams chats/posts whenever they like, with no retention applied. Chats or posts that are not deleted will simply remain until the Team is disposed of. This approach has potential implications if chats/posts contain harassing or offensive content.
  • Set a relatively short-term retention period for both (e.g., 30 days or 3 months), on the basis that chats/posts are not official records – but end-users are encouraged to capture any that could be records, probably as screenshots stored in SharePoint (or somewhere else). This approach provides the option to recover a message within a reasonable period of time.
  • For Teams 1:1 chats (that are stored in the personal mailboxes of participants), set the same retention period as the Exchange mailbox.
  • For Teams channel posts (that are stored in the mailbox of the associated Microsoft 365 Group), set the same retention period as the SharePoint content.

Managing Teams chats and posts as records is not a simple process. Organisations should consider the implications of allowing end-users to delete or edit sent chats or posts and set retention periods accordingly.

Addendum – there are a number of third-party products that can capture Teams chats and posts. However, one of the biggest problems with any type of chat is that a related thread may contain several messages. It may actually be easier to focus on applying retention to the chats and posts stored in the mailboxes.)

Feature image – Miguel Á. Padriñán via Pexels.

Posted in Electronic records, Office 365 Groups, Products and applications, SharePoint Online, Training and education

Different ways to access content stored in SharePoint

SharePoint Online (SPO) is the primary location to store digital objects and documents in Microsoft 365.

In this sense, it replaces on premise network file shares and drives as a location to store information although a bit ironically, it can also be accessed from File Explorer.

In Microsoft Teams channels, SPO sits behind the scenes via the ‘Files’ tab. This tab presents the content of the folder from the default Documents library that has the same name as the channel (General channel = General folder in the Documents library).

SPO can also be accessed via the SPO app on a mobile device and even directly from Outlook Online.

So, which one is the best way to access your information stored in SPO? The answer is – it depends on what you need to do. You could use all five options.

This post describes five ways to access content stored in SPO, with positives and negatives.

1- For day to day use – synced via File Explorer

Most people use File Explorer to store, organise and access their content, and generally only work from a few folder locations They don’t want to have to open a browser or other application.

The good news is that they can sync SPO document libraries to File Explorer and work directly from there. They can sync a document library from the SPO site or via Teams.

Syncing a library from SPO
Syncing the same library in Teams

So, for most users, the main change will be a different location to access their content from File Explorer. It looks a bit like the image below. The first words after the folder are the site name, then the hyphen, then the library name. To make it as easy as possible, the library should ideally be the same as the old top level folder on the network file share.

Syncing downloads the metadata about the content that is stored the SPO library. The content is not downloaded to the location device (C: drive usually) until it is opened. From that point on, there is a ‘local’ copy. If that local copy is modified, the changes are synced back to the SPO site.

The content of a synced library (example)

End users can share directly from File Explorer. The dialogue box is exactly the same as the SPO/Teams option. This makes it much easier to share rather than attach a document to email.

End users can co-author an Office document opened from File Explorer provided they have the most recent version of Office installed. Other end-users may be accessing the same document at the same time via the online versions of Office in Teams or SPO.

The main negatives about the sync option are as follows:

  • Only basic File Explorer metadata is visible – Name, Date modified, etc. If end-users need to add or see added metadata columns, they will have to access this via the Teams Files tab or the SPO library.
  • More restrictive, granular-level permissions cannot be set (e.g., on a folder or a document). These have to be set from SPO.
  • End-users cannot access the version history or Recycle Bin (to restore deleted items)
  • A folder added at the same level as a Teams channel-mapped folder, will not create a new channel. However, folders created under the Teams channel-mapped folder will be visible.

2 – To collaborate – access via MS Teams

Microsoft have positioned Teams to be an ‘all in one’ collaboration application, allowing end-users to chat, upload and store files, have video calls and more.

In the 1:1 chat area of Teams, the ‘Files’ tab presents documents shared from the OneDrive account of a participant in the chat. OneDrive is, of course, a SharePoint service.

In the Teams area of Teams, the ‘Files’ tab displays, for each channel, a folder with the same name in the Documents library of the Team’s SPO site (every Team has a SPO site). End-users can create, capture and manage content in the channel’s Files tab, as shown in the example below.

Files and folders in the ‘General’ folder of the SPO Documents library

There are several positives of accessing SPO via Teams:

  • Teams includes additional collaboration options, including the ability to chat at the same time as a document is viewed or edited. Content (and folders) can be shared easily.
  • If this library is synced to File Explorer, any changes made in either location will be automatically updated in the other.
  • Any metadata columns added to the SPO document library will be visible here.
  • The SPO site can be accessed directly from a link on the menu bar.

The main negatives of accessing content via the Teams ‘Files’ tab are as follows:

  • End-users have to open and use an unfamiliar interface (although it has become more common)
  • The three dot ‘ellipsis’ menu is limited compared with the full SPO version. For example, it does not include versions. See the screenshot below.
  • The Recycle Bin is not accessible – you have to click on ‘Open in SharePoint’ to access it there.
Ellipsis menu in the Teams Files tab

3 – To see Group emails and files – access via Outlook

Microsoft 365 Groups are a key element in Microsoft 365 and provide a range of functionality that can replace or supplement existing access control and collaboration purposes.

Every Microsoft 365 Group has an Exchange mailbox and a SPO site, and can be linked to a new Team.

  • If the Microsoft 365 Group is created first, the Exchange mailbox is visible to the Group members in their Outlook.
  • If the Team is created first, a Microsoft 365 Group with a SPO site and mailbox are created, but the Exchange mailbox is not visible via Outlook. It is there only to store the compliance copies of chats and for calendaring purposes.

Microsoft 365 Groups can be used to replace shared mailboxes or to give business areas the ability to access both email and SPO-stored content from the same location (as well as via File Explorer and Teams).

In the first screenshot below from Outlook Online, you can see a square ‘documents’ icon to the right of the words ‘Send email’. This square icon opens the Group’s SPO documents library (next screenshot). In the installed version of Outlook, clicking this link opens the SPO site in the browser window.

The Group mailbox in Outlook Online

In the screenshot below, you can see the Group’s files from the Documents library, General folder in Outlook Online.

The Group’s files from Outlook Online

The main positives of accessing SPO content from Outlook Online is that it is relatively easy to move between the Group’s emails and document stored in SPO. End-users can open and documents directly from Outlook, although this (currently) opens Word Online.

The main negative of accessing SPO content from Outlook Online is the limited functionality available from the ellipsis menu, including the inability to see previous versions or access the Recycle Bin. It is also not possible to modify the view (display columns). However, any changes made to the view in either Teams or SPO will be visible in the Outlook Online view.

The ellipsis menu in Outlook

4 – Anywhere, anytime – via mobile devices

Both Google and Apple provide the SharePoint mobile app, as well as apps for OneDrive, MS Teams, Outlook and Microsoft Office.

This means that mobile users can access their SharePoint content directly from a mobile device. They can also use the SharePoint app to search for any content they have access to.

The document library from a mobile device

The main negative with accessing SharePoint from a mobile device is the functionality is very limited. End-users can access and edit the content (if they have the relevant app installed), and can share the documents, but that’s all.

On the other hand, they can access the content anywhere, any time. That makes it very useful.

5 – From the browser – the full SharePoint experience

Of course, the end-user may also access SharePoint from the browser and it is usually a good idea to let them know they can do this for the reasons below.

They can access the browser version in multiple ways:

  • From the end-user SharePoint portal and clicking on the site –
  • By clicking on ‘Open in SharePoint’ from the Files tab in Teams.
  • By saving the site as a favorite in their browser.
  • By clicking on the files option in a Group’s email inbox area in Outlook installed on the desktop.

The main or common reasons they might want to access the browser version of SharePoint are:

  • To recover a file they deleted (from any of the other locations, including File Explorer), from the Recycle Bin. This option is available for 93 days after the file was deleted. After that point, unless a retention policy has been applied (in which case the document will be in the Preservation Hold library, accessible to admins), the file is gone forever.
  • To see who has been working on a file, from the version history.
  • To see who has viewed a file (when this feature is enabled).
  • To seek approval for, or see who has approved which version of, a document. This functionality comes with every SharePoint library and list.
  • To add additional metadata to the content.
  • To use the full functionality of document sets. Note that these appear as normal folders in a synced document library.
  • To copy or move documents.
  • To check out a document.
  • To search for content and to view content in multiple ways through views.
  • And more.

Summing up

Access to SharePoint has never been easier, but it is a good idea to let end-users know that they can access their SharePoint content in multiple ways.

Some users may rarely access it via Teams (unless they are interested in collaborating more effectively than attaching documents to emails), and even less so via the full SharePoint browser interface. In summary:

OptionBest for
File ExplorerDay to day use where no additional metadata or labels are needed. Sharing (instead of attaching)
MS TeamsCollaboration.
OutlookFor Groups that also use the Group mailbox.
Mobile deviceAnywhere, anytime access
BrowserFor the full set of functionality, including the Recycle Bin, versioning history, viewing, usage information, searching and more.

It is important to let end users know the functionality that they can access in the different areas, especially the version history and Recycle Bin in the browser version of SPO. These alone can be ‘life savers’.

Posted in Classification, Compliance, Exchange Online, Information Management, Microsoft Teams, Office 365, Office 365 Groups, Products and applications, Records management, Retention and disposal, SharePoint Online, Training and education

Planning for records retention in Office 365

Office 365 is sometimes referred to as an ‘ecosystem’. In theory this means that records could be stored anywhere across that ecosystem.

Unlike the ‘old’ on-premise world of standalone servers for each Microsoft application (Exchange, SharePoint, Skype) – and where specific retention policies could apply (including the Exchange Messaging Records Management MRM policy), the various elements that make up Office 365 are interconnected.

The most obvious example of this interconnectivity is Microsoft Teams which stores chat content in Exchange and provides access to content stored in both SharePoint (primarily the SharePoint site of the linked Office 365 Group) and OneDrive, and has links to other elements such as Planner.

Records continue to be created and kept in the various applications but retention policies are set centrally and can apply to any or all of the content across the ecosystem.

Managing records in Office 365, and applying retention rules to those records, requires an understanding of at least the key parts of the ecosystem – Exchange, Teams, SharePoint and OneDrive and how they interrelate, and from there establishing a plan for the implementation of retention.

What types of records are created in Office 365?

Records are defined as ‘evidence of business activity’ and are often associated with some form of metadata.

Evidence of business activity is an overarching term that can include:

  • Emails
  • Calendars
  • Documents and notebooks (in the sense of text on a page)
  • Plans, including both project plans and architectural plans and diagrams
  • Images/photographs and video
  • Chat and/or messages
  • Conversations (audio and/or video based)
  • Social media posts

All digital records contain some form of metadata, usually displayed as ‘Properties’.

Where are the records stored in Office 365?

Most records created organisations using Office 365 are likely to be created or stored in the following parts of the ecosystem:

  • Exchange/Outlook – for emails and calendars.
  • SharePoint and OneDrive – for documents and notebooks (in the sense of text on a page), plans, images/photographs and video.
  • Stream – for audio and video recordings.
  • MS Teams – for chat and/or messages, conversations (audio and/or video based). Note that 1:1 chats are stored in a hidden folder of the Exchange mailbox of the end-user/s participating in the chat, while Teams channel chat is stored in a hidden folder of the linked Office 365 Group mailbox.
  • Yammer – for (internal) social media posts.

It is also possible to import and archive certain external content such as Twitter tweets and Facebook content in Office 365.

The diagram below provides a overview of the main Office 365 applications and locations where records are created or stored. Under SharePoint, the term ‘Sites’ refers to all types of SharePoint sites, including those associated with Office 365 Groups. Libraries are shown separately because of the potential to apply a retention policy to a library – see below.


Note also that this diagram does not include network file shares (NFS) as the assumption is made that (a) NFS content will be migrated to SharePoint and the NFS made read only, and (b) all new content that would previously have been stored on the NFS is instead saved either to OneDrive for Business (for ‘personal’ or working documents) or SharePoint only.

Creating a plan to manage records retention across Office 365

In previous posts I have recommended that organisations implementing Office 365 have the following:

  • A basic architecture design model for SharePoint sites, including SharePoint sites linked with Office 365 Groups (and Teams in MS Teams).
  • A plan for creating and applying retention policies across the ecosystem.

Because SharePoint is the most likely location for records to be stored (aside from Exchange mailboxes and OneDrive accounts), there should be at least one retention policy for every SharePoint site (or group of sites), as well as policies for specific document libraries if the retention for the content in those libraries may be different from the retention on the overall site.

For example, a ‘Management’ site may contain a range of general content as well as specific content that needs to be retained for longer. 

  • The site can be covered by a single implicit retention policy of (say) 7 years. This policy will delete content in the background, based on date created or data modified. 
  • The document library where specific types of records with longer or different retention requirements are stored may have one or more explicit label-based policies applied to those libraries. This content will be retained while the rest of the site content is deleted via the first policy.

Structure of a retention plan for records in Office 365

A basic plan for creating and applying retention policies might look something like the following:

  • User mailboxes – one ‘general’ (implicit) retention policy for all mailboxes (say, 7 years after creation) and another more specific retention policy for specific mailboxes that require longer retention.
  • SharePoint sites – multiple (implicit) retention policies targeting one or more sites.
  • SharePoint libraries – multiple (explicit) label-based retention policies that are applied manually. These policies will usually a retention policy that is longer than any implicit retention policy as any implicit site policy will prevent the deletion of content before it reaches the end of that retention period.
  • Office 365 Groups (includes the associated mailbox and SharePoint site) – one ‘general’ (implicit) retention policy. See also below.
  • Teams channel chat – one ‘general’ (implicit) retention policy. Note that this content is stored in a special folder of the Office 365 Group mailbox.
  • 1:1 chat – one ‘general’ (implicit) retention policy. This content is stored in a special folder of the participant mailboxes.
  • OneDrive documents – one ‘general’ (implicit) retention policy for all ODfB accounts, plus the configuration of retention after the account is inactive.

At a high level, the retention policy plan might look something like the following – ‘implicit’ policies are shown in yellow, SharePoint document libraries may be subject to ‘explicit’, label-based policies. The ‘+7 years’ for OneDrive relates to inactive accounts, a setting set in the OneDrive Admin portal.


Regarding Microsoft Office 365 Groups, Microsoft notes the following on this page about managing retention in Office 365:

To retain content for a Microsoft 365 group, you need to use the Microsoft 365 groups location. Even though an Microsoft 365 group has an Exchange mailbox, a retention policy that includes the entire Exchange location won’t include content in Microsoft 365 group mailboxes. A retention policy applied to an Microsoft 365 group includes both the group mailbox and site. A retention policy applied to an Microsoft 365 group protects the resources created by an Microsoft 365 group, which would include Microsoft Teams.

The actual plan should contain more detail and included as part of other recordkeeping documentation (perhaps stored on a ‘Records Management’ SharePoint site). The plan should include details about (a) where the policies have been applied and (b) the expected outcomes or actions for the policies, including automatic deletion or disposition review (for document libraries).

Keep in mind that, unless the organisation decides to acquire this option, there is no default backup for content in Office 365 – once a record had been deleted, it is gone forever and there may be no record of this beyond 90 days.

Posted in Classification, Compliance, Electronic records, Governance, Information Management, Legal, Office 365, Office 365 Groups, Products and applications, Records management, SharePoint Online, Training and education

AI curated chaos or control – the equally valid but opposite ends of the SharePoint spectrum

There are, broadly speaking, two ‘bookend’ options when it comes to creating new SharePoint Online sites and the document libraries in those sites:

  • ‘Controlled’ model: The creation of new sites is restricted to a small group of individuals with admin rights, who also oversee the creation of document libraries and application of metadata. A combination of controlled and manually applied classification and metadata and retention policies are used to access and manage content over time. Artificial intelligence (AI) tools can also be used to manage content.
  • ‘Chaos/uncontrolled’ model: The creation of new sites, including the creation of document libraries is not restricted. AI tools (including auto-classification) and auto-applied retention policies are used to classify, access and manage content over time. This model assumes that any form of random categorisation applied by end users (e.g., library names, metadata) is mostly ignored by AI tools.

From a traditional information governance and records management (ISO 15498/ISO 16175) point of view, the second ‘chaos’ or uncontrolled model option seems to run counter to conventional wisdom and agreed standards.

From a practical point of view, the first ‘control’ model option seems to run counter to common sense given the volume and range of digital information and the difficulty of classifying or categorising information and records correctly.

Which option is better?

Confusingly, perhaps, the answer may be a combination of both.

  • Certain types of more formal records, such as those required for corporate compliance, formal policies, staff files, accounting information not stored in a finance system, property information, and/or product information, is almost certainly going to be better off in a controlled SharePoint sites with pre-defined libraries and metadata. These types of documents are more likely to be subject to records retention requirements and almost certainly may be subject to eDiscovery and legal holds.
  • Other types of less formal records, including ‘working’ documents, chats and conversations may be better off stored in uncontrolled SharePoint sites, including SharePoint sites linked with Office 365 Groups and Teams, and in MS Teams/Outlook. These types of records are less likely to be subject to records retention requirements but may be subject to eDiscovery and legal holds.

Ultimately, the way the organisation needs to implement Office 365, including SharePoint Online and apply retention policies and other options will depend on its need to comply with oversight and legal requirements (including minimum retention periods), and/or its tolerance for risk.

How does this work in Office 365/SharePoint Online?

If both options Organisations need to make a conscious decision to allow both options, and be prepared to manage both.

The key features of Office 365 and SharePoint to allow both options are listed below:

  • Office 365 retention policies apply to all of Exchange Online, all OneDrive for Business accounts, entire sites (invisible to users) or parts of sites (visible to users).
  • Some retention policies may be applied based on the auto-classification of records, subject to review.
  • The creation of SharePoint sites is either controlled (requested and provisioned) or uncontrolled (created by end users) via either (a) ‘Create sites’ in the end-user SharePoint portal or (b) when a new Team is created in MS Teams.
  • All sites, including Office 365 Group/Team sites are reviewed regularly for activity and inactive sites with no content of value deleted.
  • All controlled sites are assigned either an invisible retention policy or individual visible retention policies (with disposal review), depending on their content.
  • All uncontrolled sites are assigned an invisible retention policy. Uncontrolled and inactive sites with content are also made read only.

Features of controlled and uncontrolled SharePoint sites

SharePoint Online is quite different from older versions of the application and those who dismiss it based on previous experience should consider having another look as a lot has changed in the past couple of years.

SharePoint Online allows the creation of sites that contain important content that needs to be controlled of managed as records, as well as sites created and managed entirely by end-users. And, as an added bonus, all the content is stored in the one place, not in multiple locations (network drives, email servers, EDRM system, etc).

The elements that make up both types of sites, as well as ‘informational’ sites, are described below:

  • Controlled sites
    • Where the organisation’s official records are stored and managed.
    • Created by SharePoint Administrators.
    • More formal in nature, containing the official records.
    • Structure decided by business areas – for example, document libraries using agreed naming conventions.
    • Use of Content Types and site column or local library metadata to define the content.
    • Application of Office 365 retention policies to entire sites or individual document libraries, with disposal reviews. Auto-classification is less likely to be required as the content has already been structured as required.
  • Uncontrolled sites
    • Usually based on end-user created Office 365 Groups or MS Teams.
    • Where ‘working documents’ are created and managed, with the emphasis on allowing end-users collaborate and communicate easily and effectively – and move content to formal sites when required.
    • Created by end-users but naming monitored by SharePoint administrators (or using rules).
    • Informal in nature, used for working documents (effectively replacing personal and network file shares, and other unapproved systems).
    • A fluid structure for document libraries, driven by end-user requirements (not imposed by others).
    • Little if any use of Content Types or metadata.
    • Retention based on Group activity (E5 licences), otherwise based on Office 365 site retention policies and/or auto-classification options.
    • No disposal reviews – content is deleted after a given period of time.
  • Informative
    • Communication sites (e.g., ‘intranet’)
    • Used to publish information to the organisation

Things to watch out for

It is largely true that if you give people an option, someone is bound to try it, sooner or later, especially if it says ‘Create site’, ‘Create team’, or ‘Create group’. Early adopters learn quickly and can just as quickly abandon something that provides no benefit. 

In a ‘free for all’ SharePoint environment, where end-users can create new sites, teams or groups (both of the latter have a SharePoint site), the most likely issues will include:

  • Sites with names that are very similar to ones that already exist, created because the end-user didn’t know another existed (it may not be obvious) or didn’t like the name.
  • Sites with names that make no sense (including common acronyms) or are just ‘wrong’ or contrary to preferred naming conventions.
  • Sites used to create and store content that really should be stored in a more formal site or, conversely, doesn’t belong in the organisation’s official information systems (e.g., photos of someone’s wedding).

All of these issues require some general rules about the creation of new sites (or Office 365 Groups or Teams or Yammer Groups), including suggested naming.

Global and SharePoint admins can monitor the environment and fix issues when they arise rather than wielding a big stick.

What’s great about it

You can have the best of both worlds with SharePoint Online.

  • Keep formal official records in ‘formal’ sites with controlled structures and metadata.
  • Allow end-users to get on with creating, collaborating, sharing (one copy, not attachments), chatting, on any device.

If your communications and change management are good, end-users will soon learn how much fun it can be to use Teams, or access their content from File Explorer (or both!), without having to having to be trained how to save records. All they need to know is how to use the ‘Move’ option to move the final version of records to a formal site.

The foundation of any compliance program is knowing where all of your data lives and then classifying, labeling, and governing it appropriately.